Minister of War Marshal Soult dispatched Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans (later King Louis Philippe I), the Count of Artois, and Marshal MacDonald to apprehend Napoleon. , On 29 June, a deputation of five from among the members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Peers approached Wellington about putting a foreign prince on the throne of France. With Louis XVIII using the title Comte d'Isle, named after his estate in Languedoc and at times spelt as Comte de Lille. The Archbishop of Toulouse, Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, acquired Calonne's ministry. Accordingly, in 1805 he reformulated his public policies with a view to reclaiming his throne, issuing a declaration that was far more liberal than his earlier pronouncements. Desperate to display to the world a united family, Louis XVIII ordered his wife Queen Marie Joséphine, who at the time was living apart from her husband in Schleswig-Holstein, to attend the wedding. Louis Stanislas soon fell in love with his wife's new lady-in-waiting and installed her as his mistress, which resulted in the couple's already limited affection for each other cooling entirely. comtes de Provence 890-908 : Thibert, dit aussi Teutberg d'Avignon; comte d'Arles 879-895 : Théobald d'Arles († 895), marié à Berthe, fille de Lothaire II. Marie-Thérèse even sold a diamond necklace that the Emperor Paul had given her as a wedding gift. Updates? The electorate was limited to the richest men in France, most of whom had supported Napoleon. Il entretenait d’ailleurs avec ce dernier, surnommé « l’ami des hommes », des relations difficiles : …  Louis always dreaded the day he would die, believing that his brother, and heir, Artois, would abandon the centrist government for an ultra-royalist autocracy, which would not bring favourable results.. The resulting Charte Constitutionnelle was adopted on June 4, 1814. , Louis XVIII's health began to fail in the spring of 1824. Mansel, Philip. This led to mass desertions from the Bourbon armies to Bonaparte's. His reign was further marked by the formation of the Quintuple Alliance and a military intervention in Spain. Suffrage for the Chamber of Deputies was granted to adult males who paid 300 francs a year in tax. On May 2, Louis XVIII officially promised a constitutional monarchy, with a bicameral parliament, religious toleration, and constitutional rights for all citizens. "The Bourbon Army, 1815-1830.". The birth of two sons to Louis XVI, however, temporarily put a stop to his royal ambitions. Républicanisme classique et régénération de la monarchie, Aix-en-Provence, PUAM, 2007. There was, however, a major underlying problem for the Bourbons: Louis XVIII had failed to purge the military of its Bonapartist troops. Deputies would be elected every five years, with one fifth of them up for election each year. He succeeded when Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, agreed to relinquish his custody of her in 1796. Provence sent emissaries to various European courts asking for financial aid, soldiers, and munition.  In the early 1780s, he also incurred huge debts totalling 10 million livres, which his brother Louis XVI paid. These individuals now effectively had two votes. The Declaration of Hartwell was even more liberal than his Declaration of 1805, asserting that those who had served Napoleon or the Republic would not suffer repercussions for their acts, and that the original owners of the Biens nationaux (lands confiscated from the nobility and clergy during the Revolution) would be compensated for their losses. He was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV.  That same winter, Louis suffered a particularly severe attack of gout, which was a recurring problem for him at Hartwell, and he had to take to a wheelchair.. In 1812, Napoleon I embarked on an invasion of Russia, initiating a war which would prove to be the turning point in his fortunes.  The death of the Duke of Berry meant that the House of Orleans was more likely to succeed to the throne. Richelieu was chosen because he was acceptable to Louis' family and to the reactionary Chamber of Deputies.. However, the appanage generated only 300,000 livres a year, an amount much lower than it had been at its peak in the fourteenth century. On 16 April 1771, Louis Stanislas was married by proxy to Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.  During this period of his life he was often known by the title Count of Provence. He was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism. He kept his promises. ... where he attracted the notice of the comte de Provence (afterwards Louis XVIII.). Artois, Berry and Angoulême were purged from the new "ministère", and Talleyrand was appointed as the first Président du Conseil, i.e. The most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence (according to biographer Antonia Fraser) or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. , Louis returned to France promptly after Napoleon's defeat to ensure his second restoration "in the baggage train of the enemy", i.e. He arrived with about 1,000 troops near Cannes on 1 March. The Allies came to the consensus that Louis XVIII should be restored to the throne of France. , Napoleon's senate called Louis XVIII to the throne on the condition that he would accept a constitution that entailed recognition of the Republic and the Empire, a bicameral parliament elected every year, and the tri-colour flag of the aforementioned regimes. Provence's endorsement of the declaration was not well received in France, either by the ordinary citizens or by Louis XVI himself. During the summer of 1815, he and his ministry embarked on a series of reforms. Until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, Charles-Eugène de Lorraine, prince de Lambesc, the former Empress Marie-Louise of France, "Louis XVIII (1755–1824) Le "Roi-fauteuil, "Bulletin des lois de la République française", "Liste chronologique des chevaliers de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit depuis son origine jusqu'à son extinction (1578-1830)", "A Evolução da Banda das Três Ordens Militares (1789-1826)", "Caballeros Existentes en la Insignie Orden del Toison de Oro", England expects that every man will do his duty, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_XVIII&oldid=996494611, Recipients of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Recipients of the Order of the Black Eagle, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Red Eagle, Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, French politicians with physical disabilities, Legitimist pretenders to the French throne, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Frederking, Bettina. The exiles were not given back their lands and property, although they eventually received repayment in the form of bonds. ... C’est à ce moment-là que Mirabeau, député de Provence, surnommé « l’Orateur du peuple », prononce cette phrase historique : « nous ne quitterons nos places que par la puissance des baïonnettes. , In 1780, Anne Nompar de Caumont, Countess of Balbi, entered the service of Marie Joséphine.  The King entered Paris on 8 July to a boisterous reception: the Tuileries Palace gardens were thronged with bystanders, and, according to the Duke of Wellington, the acclamation of the crowds there were so loud during that evening that he could not converse with the King. They released the Declaration of Pillnitz in August 1791, which urged Europe to intervene in France if Louis XVI or his family were threatened. They later apologised for their mistake. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as the Desired (French: le Désiré), was King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for the Hundred Days in 1815. However, Napoleon escaped from his exile in Elba and restored his French Empire.  Louis responded with the Charter of 1814, which included many progressive provisions: freedom of religion, a legislature composed of a lower house styled the Chamber of Deputies and an upper house, styled the Chamber of Peers.  In May the following year, 1804, Napoleon declared himself Emperor of the French. Son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. Procès-verbal de l'assemblée de nosseigneurs des États généraux du pays et comté de Provence Volume 1788 : 368 pages + règlement en bonne état pour l'age. (en) Jörn Steigerwald, « Curious Imagination or the Rise of Voyeurism : Mirabeau’s Le rideau levé », Modern Language Notes 123, n o 4, septembre 2008 (French Issue), p. 924-946. Caraman, Victor-Maurice de Riquet, comte de, 1727-1807; Victor Maurice de Riquet de Caraman-Chimay Label from public data source Wikidata; Sources. According to Wirydianna Fiszerowa, a contemporary living there at the time, the Prussian local authorities, wishing to honour the arrivals, had music played, but trying to give this a national and patriotic character, unwittingly chose La Marseillaise, the hymn of the First French Republic with unflattering allusions to both Louis XVI and Louis XVIII.  When the Sixth Coalition finally defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, and the French royalists, considered his rightful position. , As time went on, Louis XVIII realised that France would never accept an attempt to return to the Ancien Régime. On behalf of the Allies, Austria agreed to send a force to the Kingdom of Naples to depose Murat in February 1815, when it was learned that Murat corresponded with Napoleon, which was explicitly forbidden by a recent treaty. However the Bourbon succession was still in doubt. , In 1818, the Chambers passed a military law that increased the size of the army by over 100,000.  On 14 July, the ministry dissolved the units of the army deemed "rebellious". Parma, however, was bestowed upon Empress Marie-Louise for life, and the Parma Bourbons were given the Duchy of Lucca until the death of Marie-Louise. However, having to live under less generous conditions than those enjoyed under Paul I, Louis XVIII decided to embark for England as soon as possible. He exploited a document that he and Louis XVI had written before the latter's failed escape to Varennes-en-Argonne. Procès-verbal de l'assemblée de nosseigneurs des États généraux du pays et comté de Provence Volume 1788: 368 pages + “règlement”, in good condition for its age. This stay in Sweden was short-lived since in November 1807 he disembarked at Great Yarmouth, on the Eastern coast of England. After 1820, however, the ultras exercised increasing control and thwarted most of Louis’s attempts to heal the wounds of the Revolution. The King was reluctant to shed blood, and this greatly irritated the ultra-reactionary Chamber of Deputies, who felt that Louis was not executing enough. , Louis XVIII signed the Treaty of Paris on 30 May 1814.  The notables rejected the "dual representation" proposal.  Louis Stanislas commissioned a pavilion for his mistress on a parcel of land at Versailles which became known as the Parc Balbi. He was interred at the Basilica of St Denis, the necropolis of French kings.  The King paid £500 in rent each year to the owner of the estate, Sir George Lee. Montgaillard, Jean Gabriel Maurice Roques, Comte de. John W. Rooney, Jr. and Alan J. Reinerman, "Continuity: French Foreign Policy of The First Restoration". She married Louis Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, Comte de Provence (1755-1824), at …  Louis XVIII opposed the senate's constitution and stated that he was "disbanding the current senate in all the crimes of Bonaparte, and appealing to the French people". To be eligible for membership in the Chamber of Deputies, one had to pay over 1,000 francs per year in tax, and be over the age of forty.  Louis XVIII was forced to leave Blankenburg when King Frederick William II of Prussia died. He spent twenty-three years in exile: during the French Revolution and the First French Empire (1791–1814), and during the Hundred Days. If Orleans were unavailable, the regency would be submitted to election. M. le comte de Mirabeau, député d'Aix en Provence (1789) M. Mirabeau l'ainé (1789) Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque furenter deposuit (1789) Le prince reçoit en apanage le comté de Provence dès sa naissance par son grand-père Louis XV. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin.. These generous terms would be reversed in the next Treaty of Paris after the Hundred Days (Napoleon's return to France in 1815). The King was invested with executive powers and had “legislative initiative,” whereas a largely advisory parliament voted on laws and approved the budget. Louis Stanislas longed for political influence.  King Louis was worried that the counter-revolutionary element sought revenge. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, he remained in Paris, possibly to exploit the situation as a royal candidate; but he fled the country in June 1791. Louis was the fourth son of the dauphin Louis, the son of Louis XV, and received the title comte de Provence; after the death of his two elder brothers and the accession of his remaining elder brother as Louis XVI in 1774, he became heir presumptive. Their property and titles were confiscated. Vivez l'info au plus près des faits avec les journalistes de nos 44 antennes locales ! On 27 April 1774, Louis XV fell ill after contracting smallpox and died a few days later on 10 May, aged 64. He attempted to gain admittance to the King's council in 1774, but failed. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Artois secured a castle for the court in exile in the Electorate of Trier (or "Treves"), where their maternal uncle, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, was the Archbishop-Elector. , Brienne's reforms were then submitted to the Parlement of Paris in the hopes that they would be approved. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony. The Royal Council, an informal group of ministers that advised Louis, was dissolved and replaced by a tighter knit privy council, the "Ministère de Roi". It would guarantee the full property rights of those who had purchased national lands during the revolution. Louis XVIII's nephew, the Duke of Berry, was assassinated at the Paris Opera on 14 February 1820. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. The French line of succession upon the death of Louis XVIII in 1824.  In March 1791, the National Assembly created a law outlining the regency of Louis Charles in case his father died while he was still too young to reign. In 1774, he accompanied his sister Clotilde to Chambéry on the journey to meet her bridegroom Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont, heir to the throne of Sardinia. Louis XVIII, also called (until 1795) Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, Comte (count) de Provence, (born Nov. 17, 1755, Versailles, Fr.—died Sept. 16, 1824, Paris), king of France by title from 1795 and in fact from 1814 to 1824, except for the interruption of the Hundred Days, during which Napoleon attempted to recapture his empire.  In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, and Count of Senoches. Une fois votre sélection faite, cliquez sur "Valider la commande" depuis la page de votre panier. On 8 May, two of the leading members of the Parlement of Paris were arrested. The treaty gave France her 1792 borders, which extended east of the Rhine. The Tsar also guaranteed Louis' safety and bestowed on him a generous pension, though later discontinued payment. He was succeeded by his youngest brother, the Count of Artois, as Charles X.. , In 1803, Napoleon tried to force Louis XVIII to renounce his right to the throne of France, but Louis refused.  Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature; several of his teachers were priests, such as Jean-Gilles du Coëtlosquet, Bishop of Limoges; the Abbé Jean-Antoine Nollet; and the Jesuit Guillaume-François Berthier.  Louis, unable to walk, had sent the Count of Artois to France in January 1814 and issued letters patent appointing Artois Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom in the event of his being restored as king. In July, Louis XVIII and his nephew departed for Sweden for a Bourbon family conference, where Louis XVIII, the Count of Artois, and the Duke of Angoulême issued a statement condemning Napoleon's move. Procès-Verbal de l'Assemblée Générale des Gens du Tiers-État du Pays et Comté de Provence, convoquée, par autorité & permission de Sa Majesté, en la ville d'Aix, au 30 Avril 1789 Aix, des Imprimeries de Gibelin David & Emeric-David, Avocats, Imprimeur du Roi & du Pays, 1789 , Louis Stanislas travelled about France more than other members of the Royal Family, who rarely left the Île-de-France. , The young King, still a minor, died in June 1795. It was there that he, the Count of Artois, and the Condé princes proclaimed that their objective was to invade France. His father transferred the County of Provence from his uncle Sancho to him in 1185. Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, (born March 9, 1749, Bignon, near Nemours, France—died April 2, 1791, Paris), French politician and orator, one of the greatest figures in the National Assembly that governed France during the early phases of the French Revolution.A moderate and an advocate of constitutional monarchy, he died before the Revolution reached its radical climax. He attempted to gain admittance to the King's council in 1774, but failed. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He did not return until July 8, after Waterloo. The King's confidants Charles François, Marquis de Bonnay, and the Duke de La Chatre advised him to inflict firm punishments on the “traitors”. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X.  Louis publicly deplored such illegal acts, but vehemently supported the prosecution of those marshals of the army who had helped Napoleon in the Hundred Days. : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. His wife gave birth to a posthumous son in September, Henry, Duke of Bordeaux, nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) by the Bourbons because he was thought to have secured the future of the dynasty. On 17 June, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly, an Assembly not of the Estates, but of the people.  Louis Stanislas' elder brother, the Dauphin Louis Auguste, succeeded their grandfather as King Louis XVI. In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, and his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390.  As eldest brother of the King, Louis Stanislas received the title Monsieur. In fact, Murat never did actually write to Napoleon, but Louis, intent on restoring the Neapolitan Bourbons at any cost, had taken care to have such a correspondence forged, and subsidised the Austrian expedition with 25 million francs.. , When the Count of Provence arrived in the Low Countries, he proclaimed himself de facto regent of France. The name of Louis was bestowed because it was typical of a prince of France; Stanislas was chosen to honour his great-grandfather King Stanisław I of Poland; and Xavier was chosen for Saint Francis Xavier, whom his mother's family held as one of their patron saints. Louis XVI was characteristically indecisive. This unrest was engineered by local magistrates and nobles, who enticed the people to revolt against the Lit de Justice, which was quite unfavourable to the nobles and magistrates. Marie Joséphine (as she was known in France) was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy (later King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia), and his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain.